Trucha común - Salmo trutta Linnaeus, 1758

Para más información sobre cada apartado hacer click en:

 

Portada

 

Identificación

 

Estatus de conservación

 

Distribución

 

Hábitat

 

Ecología trófica

 

Biología de la reproducción

 

Interacciones entre especies

 

Comportamiento

 

Bibliografía

 

 

 

Bibliografía

Acornley, R. M. (1999). Water temperatures within spawning beds in two chalk streams and implications for salmonid egg development. Hydrological Processes, 13: 439-446.

Ade, R. (1989). The trout and salmon handbook. A guide to the wild fish. Christopher Helm, London.

Alanara, A., Burns, M. D., Metcalfe, N. B. (2001). Intraspecific resource partitioning in brown trout: the temporal distribution of foraging is determined by social rank. Journal of Animal Ecology, 70: 980-986.

Alcaraz-Hernández, J. D., Martínez-Capel, F., Peredo, M., Hernández-Mascarell, A. B. (2007). Relaciones entre densidades y biomasas de Salmo trutta fario y mediciones del mesohábitat en tramos trucheros de la Comunidad Valenciana. Limnetica, 26 (1): 159-167.

Alcaraz-Hernández, J. D., Muñoz-Mas, R., Martínez-Capel, F., Garofano-Gómez, V., Vezza, P. (2016). Generalized additive models to predict adult and young brown trout (Salmo trutta Linnaeus, 1758) densities in Mediterranean Rivers. Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 32 (1): 217-228.

Allen, K. R. (1951). The Horokiwi stream: a study of a trout population. N. Z. Dep. Fish. Bull., 10: 1-231.

Aller Gancedo, J. M., Fernández Díez, M. (1987). Saprolegniosis en la trucha común (Salmo trutta L.) de los ríos de León (España). Medicina Veterinaria, 4 (3): 181-183.

Almodóvar, A., Nicola, G. G. (1998). Assessment of a brown trout Salmo trutta population in the River Gallo (central Spain): angling effects and management implications. Italian Journal of Zoology, 65 (Suppl.): 539-543.

Almodóvar, A., Nicola, G. (1999). Effects of a small hydropower station upon brown trout Salmo trutta L. in the River Hoz Seca (Tagus basin, Spain) one year after regulation. Regulated Rivers: Research & Management, 15 (5): 477-484.

Almodóvar, A., Nicola, G. G., Ayllón, D., Elvira, B. (2012). Global warming threatens the persistence of Mediterranean brown trout. Global Change Biology, 18 (5): 1549-1560.

Almodovar, A., Nicola, G. G., Elvira, B. (2006). Spatial variation in brown trout production: the role of environmental factors. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 135 (5): 1348-1360.

Almodóvar, A., Suárez, J., Nicola, G. G., Nuevo, M. (2001). Genetic introgression between wild and stocked brown trout in the Douro River basin, Spain. Journal of Fish Biology, 59 (Supplement A): 68-74.

Alonso, C. (2003). Caracterización de la dinámica de poblaciones de trucha común (Salmo trutta L.) en la cuenca alta del río Tormes y de los principales factores que influyen en ella. Tesis doctoral. Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid.

Alonso, C., García de Jalón, D. (2001). Bases para la ordenación de la pesca en la cuenca del Alto Tormes (Ávila). Limnetica, 20 (2): 293-304.

Alonso, C., García de Jalón, D., Alvarez, J., Gortázar, J. (2011). A large-scale approach can help detect general processes driving the dynamics of brown trout populations in extensive areas. Ecology of Freshwater Fish, 20 (3): 449-460. 

Alonso-González, C., Gortázar, J., Baeza Sanz, D., García de Jalón, D. (2008). Dam function rules based on brown trout flow requirements: design of environmental flow regimes in regulated streams. Hydrobiologia, 609: 253-262.

Álvarez Pellitero, M. P. (1981). Helmintosis de la trucha en León. Diputación Provincial, León.

Alvarez-Pellitero, M. P., González-Lanza, M. C. (1983). Observaciones sobre la presencia de Eimeria truttae en Salmo spp. de León (No. de España). Revista Ibérica de Parasitología, 43 (1): 111-112.

Alvarez-Pellitero, M. P., Pereira-Bueno, J. M., González-Lanza, M. C. (1982). On the presence of Chloromyxum truttae Leger, 1906 in Salmo trutta fario from Leon (Duero Basin, NW Spain). Bulletin of the European Association of Fish Pathologists, 2 (1): 4-7.

Antón, A., Elósegi, A., García-Arberas, L., Díez, J., Rallo, A. (2011). Restoration of dead wood in Basque stream channels: effects on brown trout population. Ecology of Freshwater Fish, 20 (3): 461-471. 

Antunes, A., Faria, R., Johnson, W. E., Guyomard, R., Alexandrino, P. (2006). Life on the edge: The long-term persistence and contrasting spatial genetic structure of distinct brown trout life histories at their ecological limits. Journal of Heredity, 97 (3): 193-205.

Araguas, R. M., Sanz, N., Fernández, R., Utter, F. M., Pla, C., García-Marín, J. L. (2008). Genetic refuges for a self-sustained fishery: experience in wild brown trout populations in the eastern Pyrenees. Ecology of Freshwater Fish, 17 (4): 610-616.

Araguas, R. M., Vera, M., Aparicio, E., Sanz, N., Fernández-Cebrián, R., Marchante, C., García-Marín, J. (2017). Current status of the brown trout (Salmo trutta) populations within eastern Pyrenees genetic refuges. Ecology of Freshwater Fish, 26 (1): 120-132.

Ayllón, D., Almodóvar, A., Nicola, G. G., Elvira, B. (2009). Interactive effects of cover and hydraulics on brown trout habitat selection patterns. River Research and Applications, 25 (8): 1051-1065.

Ayllón, D., Almodóvar, A., Nicola, G. G., Elvira, B. (2010a). Modelling brown trout spatial requirements through physical habitat simulations. River Research and Applications, 26 (9): 1090-1102.

Ayllón, D., Almodóvar, A., Nicola, G. G., Elvira, B. (2010b). Ontogenetic and spatial variations in brown trout habitat selection. Ecology of Freshwater Fish, 19 (3): 420-432.  

Ayllón, D., Nicola, G. G., Elvira, B., Parra, I., Almodovar, A. (2013). Thermal Carrying Capacity for a Thermally-Sensitive Species at the Warmest Edge of Its Range. Plos One, 8 (11): e81354.

Ayllón, D., Nicola, G. G., Parra, I., Elvira, B., Almodóvar, A. (2013b). Intercohort density dependence drives brown trout habitat selection. Acta Oecologica, 46: 1-9.

Backiel, T., Le Cren, E. D. (1978). Some density relationships for fish population parameters. Pp. 279-302. En: Gerking, S. H. (Ed.). Ecology of Freshwater Fish Production. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.

Baglinière, J. L., Guyomard, R., Héland, M., Ombredane, D., Prévost, E. (2001). Écologie des populations de poissons des cours d’eau à Salmonidés. En: Neveu, A., Riou, C., Bonhomme, R., Chassin, P., Papy, F. (Eds.). L’eau dans l’espace rural; vie et milieu aquatiques. INRA Editions, Paris.

Baglinière, J. L., Maisse, G. (Eds.). (1999). Biology and ecology of the brown and sea trout. Springer-Praxis Series in Aquaculture and Fisheries.

Baglinière, J.L., Maisse, G. (2002). La biologie de la truite commune (Salmo trutta L.) dans la rivière Scorff, Bretagne: une synthèse des études de 1972 à 1997. INRA Prod. Anim., 15: 319–331.

Baglinieére, J. L., Prévost, E., Maisse, G. (1994). Comparison of population dynamics of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) in a small tributary of the River Scorff (Brittany, France). Ecology of Freshwater Fish, 3: 25-34.

Baltz, D. M., Moyle, P. B., Knight, N. J. (1982). Competitive interactions between benthic stream fishes, riffle sculpin, Cottus gulosus, and speckled dace, Rhinichthys osculus. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 39: 1502-1511.

Bao, M., Costal, D., Garci, M. E., Pascual, S., Hastie, L. C. (2016). Sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) and anchor worms (Lernaea cyprinacea) found on sea trout (Salmo trutta) in the River Minho catchment, an important area for conservation in NW Spain. Aquatic Conservation-Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 26 (2): 386-391.

Behnke, R. J. (1986). Brown trout. Trout, 27: 42-47.

Benejam, L., Saura-Mas, S., Bardina, M., Sola, C., Munne, A., García-Berthou, E. (2016). Ecological impacts of small hydropower plants on headwater stream fish: from individual to community effects. Ecology of Freshwater Fish, 25 (2): 295-306.

Berg, O. K., Jonsson, B. (1990). Growth and survival rates of the anadromous trout, Salmo trutta from the Vardnes River northern Norway. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 29: 145-154.

Berg, O. K., Thronæs, E., Bremset, G. (2000). Seasonal cycle of body composition and energy of brown trout (Salmo trutta) in a temperate zone lake. Ecology of Freshwater Fish, 9: 163-169.

Bernatchez, L. (2001). The evolutionary history of brown trout (Salmo trutta, L.) inferred from phylogeographic, nested clade, and mismatch analyses of mitochondrial DNA variation. Evolution, 55 (2): 351-379.

Berrios, P., Ruíz, V., Araya, E., Figueroa, R., Palma, A. (2002). Hábitos alimentarios de Salmo trutta (Linneo, 1758) y Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum, 1792) en el río Chillán, Chile. Bol. Soc. Biol. Concepción, 73: 103-114.

Beverton, R. J. H., Holt, S. J. (1957). On the dynamics of exploited fish populations. Fishery Investigations, Series 2, 19: 1-533.

Blanco, G., Cagigas, E., Vázquez, E., Sánchez, J. A.(1998). Genetic impact of introduced domesticated strains of brown trout, Salmo trutta, on native Spanish populations. Pp. 371-379. En: Cowx, I. G. (Ed.). Stocking and introductions of fish. Fishing News, Oxford.

Bohlin, T., Dellefors, C., Faremo, U. (1990). Large or small at maturity: theories on the choice of alternative male strategies in anadromous salmonids. Ann. Zool. Fenn., 27: 139-147.

Bouza, C., Vilas, R., Castro, J., Martínez, P. (2008). Mitochondrial haplotype variability of brown trout populations from Northwestern Iberian Peninsula, a secondary contact area between lineages. Conservation Genetics, 9 (4): 917-920.

Brabrand, Å., Koestler, A. G., Borgstrøm, R. (2002). Lake spawning of brown trout related to groundwater influx. Journal of Fish Biology, 60: 751-763.

Braña, F., Nicieza, A. G., Toledo, M. M. (1992). Effects of angling on population structure of brown trout, Salmo trutta L., in mountain streams of Northern Spain. Hydrobiologia, 237 (1): 61-66.

Bremset, G. (2000). Seasonal and diel changes in behaviour, microhabitat use and preferences by young pool-dwelling Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, and brown trout, Salmo trutta. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 59: 163-179.

Bridcut, E. E., Giller, P. S. (1995). Diet variability and foraging strategies in brown trout (Salmo trutta): an analysis from subpopulations to individuals. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 52: 2543–2552.

Brown, A. E., Oldham, R. S., Warlow, A. (1976). Chironomid larvae and pupae in the diet of brown trout (Salmo trutta) and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) in Rutland Water, Leicestershire. En: Murray, D. A., (Ed.). Chironomidae. Pergamon Press, Oxford.

Brown, A. F., Diamond, M. (2006). The consumption of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri Richardson) eggs by macroinvertebrates in the field. Freshwater Biology, 14 (2): 211-215

Brynildson, O. M., Brynildson, C. L. (1984). Impact of flood retarding structure on year class strength and production of wild brown trout in a Wisconsin coulee stream. Wisconsin Department and Nature Research, Technical Bulletin, 146: 1-20.

Caballero, P., Cobo, F., González, M. A. (2006). Life history of a sea trout (Salmo trutta L.) population from the north-west Iberian Peninsula (River Ulla, Galicia, Spain). Pp. 234-247. En: Harris, G., Milner, N. (Eds.). Sea trout: biology, conservation & management. Proceedings of the First International Sea Trout Symposium, Cardiff, July 2004. Blackwell, Oxford.

Cabral, M. J., Almeida, J., Almeida, P. R., Delliger, T., Ferrand de Almeida, N., Oliveira, M. E., Palmeirim, M., Queirós, A. I., Rogado, L., Santos-Reis, M. (Eds.) (2005). Livro Vermelho dos Vertebrados de Portugal - Peixes dulciquícolas e migradores, anfíbios, répteis, aves e mamíferos. Assirio & Alvim, Lisboa. 659 pp.

Cagigas, M. E., Vázquez, E., Blanco, G.; Sánchez, J. A. (1999). Genetic effects of introduced hatchery stocks on indigenous brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) populations in Spain. Ecology of Freshwater Fish, 8 (3): 141-150.

Callejo Rey, A., Guitián Rivera, J., Bas López, S., Sánchez Canals, J. L., de Castro Lorenzo, A. (1979). Primeros datos sobre la dieta de la nutria, Lutra lutra (L.), en aguas continentales de Galicia. Doñana Acta Vertebrata, 6 (2): 191-202.

Camargo, J. A. (1991). Ecotoxicological analysis of the influence of an industrial effluent on fish populations in a regulated stream. Aquaculture and Fisheries Management, 22 (4): 509-518.

Campbell, J. S. (1977). Spawning characteristics of brown and sea trout Salmo trutta L. in Kirk Burn, River Tweed, Scotland. J. Fish Biol., 11: 217-229.

Campos, J. L., Posada, D., Caballero, P., Morán, P. (2007). Spatio-temporal genetic variability in sea trout (Salmo trutta) populations from north-western Spain. Freshwater Biology, 52 (3): 510-524.

Carbajal-González, M. T., Fregeneda-Grandes, J. M., Suárez-Ramos, S., Rodríguez Cadenas, F., Aller-Gancedo, J. M. (2011). Bacterial skin flora variation and in vitro inhibitory activity against Saprolegnia parasitica in brown and rainbow trout. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 96 (2): 125-135.  

Castillo, A. G. F., Ayllón, F., Morán, P., Izquierdo, J. I., Martínez, J. L., Beall, E., García-Vazquez, E. (2008). Interspecific hybridization and introgression are associated with stock transfers in salmonids. Aquaculture, 278 (1-4): 31-36.

Castillo, J. A., Peribañez, M., Lucientes, J. (1991). Seasonal variations of Ichthyobodo necator (Henneguy, 1883) in feral brown trout and associated mortalities in cultured fish. Bulletin of the European Association of Fish Pathologists, 11 (6): 217-218.

Chotkowsky, M. A., Marsden, J. E. (1999). Round goby and mottled sculpin predation on lake trout eggs and fry: field predictions from laboratory experiments. J. Great Lakes Res., 25 (1): 26-35.

Claire, E. W., Phillips, R. W. (1968). The stonefly Acroneuria pacifica as a potential predator on salmonid embryos. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 97: 50-52.

Clavero, M., Ninyerola, M., Hermoso, V., Filipe, A. F., Pla, M., Villero, D., Brotons, L., Delibes, M. (2017). Historical citizen science to understand and predict climate-driven trout decline. Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences, 284 (1846): 20161979.

Cobo, F., Sánchez-Hernández, J., Vieira-Lanero, R., Serviá, M. J. (2013). Organic pollution induces domestication-like characteristics in feral populations of brown trout (Salmo trutta). Hydrobiologia, 705 (1): 119-134.

Cordero del Campillo, M., Alvarez-Pellitero, M. P. (1976). Spinitectus gordoni n. sp. (Nematoda: Spiruroidea) from brown and rainbow trouts in NW Spain. Revista Ibérica de Parasitología, 36 (1-2): 35-66.

Cordero del Campillo, M., Castañón Ordóñez, L., Reguera Feo, A. (1994). Índice- catálogo de zooparásitos ibéricos. Segunda edición. Secretariado de publicaciones, Universidad de León. 650 pp.

Cordero del Campillo, M., Fernández, A. M. (1971). Crespidostomum farionis (Muller, 1784) Luehe, 1909 y C. metoecus (Braun, 1900) Braum 1900, en Salmo trutta de León. Revista Ibérica de Parasitología, 31: 335-346.

Cordero del Campillo, M., Martínez Fernández, A. (1971). Crespidostomum farionis (Muller, 1784) Luehe, 1909 y C. metoecus (Braun, 1900) Braum 1900, en Salmo trutta de León. Con notas sobre sinonimia, lista de hospedadores y distribución geográfica. Trabajos de la Estación Agrícola Experimental de León, 8: 19-32.

Craig, J. F. (1982). A note on growth and mortality of trout, Salmo trutta L., in afferent streams of Windermere. Journal of Fish Biology, 20: 423-429.

Crisp, D. T. (1988). Prediction from temperature of eyeing, hatching and ‘swim up’ times for salmonid embryos. Freshwater Biology, 19: 41-48.

Crisp, D. T. (1993). Population densities of juvenile trout (Salmo trutta) in five upland streams and their effects upon growth, survival and dispersal. Journal of Applied Ecology, 30: 759-71.

Crisp, D. T. (2000). Trout and salmon: ecology, conservation and rehabilitation. Fishing. News Books, Blackwell Science. Oxford.

Crisp, D. T., Beaumont, W. R. C. (1995). The trout (Salmo trutta) population of the Afon Cwm, a small tributary of the Afon Dyfi, mid-Wales. Journal of Fish Biology, 46: 703-16.

Cucherousset, J., Ombredane, D., Charles, K., Marchand, F., Baglinière, J. L. (2005). A continuum of life history tactics in a brown trout (Salmo trutta) population. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 62: 1600-1610.

Dellefors, C., Faremo, U. (1988). Early sexual maturation in males of wild sea trout, Salmo trutta L., inhibits smoltification. J. Fish Biol., 33: 741-749.

Dieperink, C., Pedersen, S., Pedersen, M. I. (2001). Estuarine predation on radiotagged wild domesticated sea trout (Salmo trutta L.) smolts. Ecology of Freshwater Fish, 10: 177-183.

Doadrio, I. (Ed.) (2002). Atlas y libro rojo de los peces continentales de España. Segunda edición. Dirección General de Conservación de la Naturaleza-Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Madrid.

Doadrio, I., Perea, S., Garzón-Heydt, P., González, J. L. (2011). Ictiofauna Continental Española. Bases para su seguimiento. Dirección General Medio Natural y Política Forestal. Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Medio Rural y Marino, Madrid. 610 pp.

Domínguez Carrillo, J., Purroy Iraizoz, F. (1983). Algunos datos biológicos sobre la trucha común en León. Actas I Congr. Esp. Limnol.: 237-243.

Domínguez, J., Pena, J. C. (2001). Alimentación del lucio Esox lucius en un área de reciente colonización (Cuenca del Esla, noroeste de España). Variaciones en función de la talla. Ecología, 15: 293-308.  

Einum, S., Fleming, I. A. (1999). Maternal effects of egg size in brown trout (Salmo trutta): norms of reaction to environmental quality. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B, 266: 2095-2100.

Elliott, J. M. (1966). Downstream movements of trout fry (Salmo trutta) in a Dartmoor stream. Journal of Fisheries Research Board of Canada, 23: 157–159.

Elliott, J. M. (1967). The food of brown trout (Salmo trutta) in a Dartmor stream. J. Appli. Ecol., 4: 59-71.

Elliott, J. M. (1970). Diel changes in invertebrate drift and the food of brown trout (Salmo trutta). J. Fish Biol., 2: 161-165.

Elliott, J. M. (1975). Number of meals in a day, maximum weight of food consumed in a day, and maximum rate of feeding for brown trout, Salmo trutta L. Freshwater Biology, 5: 287-303.

Elliott, J. M. (1985). Growth, size, biomass and production for different life-stages of migratory trout, Salmo trutta, in a Lake District stream, 1966–1983. Journal of Animal Ecology, 54: 985-1002.

Elliott, J. M. (1986). Spatial distribution and behavioural movements of migratory trout Salmo trutta in a Lake District stream. Journal of Animal Ecology, 55: 907-922.

Elliott, J. M. (1993). The self-thinning rule applied to juvenile sea-trout, Salmo trutta. Journal of Animal Ecology, 62: 371-379.

Elliott, J. M. (1994). Quantitative Ecology and the Brown Trout. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Elliott, J. M. (1995). Fecundity and egg density in the redd for sea trout. Journal of Fish Biology, 47: 893-901.

Elliott, J. M., Hurley, M. A. (1998a). An individual-based model for predicting the emergence period of sea-trout fry in a Lake District stream. Journal of Fish Biology, 53: 414-433.

Elliott, J. M., Hurley, M. A. (1998b). Population regulation in adult, but not juvenile, resident trout (Salmo trutta) in a Lake District stream. Journal of Fish Biology, 53: 414-33.

Ellis, R. J. (1970). Alloperla stonefly nymphs: predators or scavengers on salmon eggs and alevins? Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 99: 677-683.

Elso, J. I., Greenberg, L. A. (2001). Habitat use, movements and survival of individual 0+ brown trout (Salmo trutta) during winter. Archiv für Hydrobiologie, 152: 279–295.

Eschmeyer, W. N. (ed.) (2010). Catalog of Fishes electronic version (6 May 2010). http://research.calacademy.org/

Euzenat, G., Fournel, F., Richard, A. (1999). Sea trout (Salmo trutta L.) in Normandy and Picardy. En: Baglinière, J. L., Maisse, G. (Eds.). Biology and ecology of the brown and the sea trout. Springer, Heidelberg, in association with Praxis Publishing Ltd., Chichester.

Fahy, E. (1983). Food and gut parasite burden of migratory trout Salmo trutta L. in the sea. Irish Naturalists’ Journal, 21: 11-18.

Fain, A., Ferrando, M. (1990). A new species of Schwiebea Oudemans (Acari, Acaridae) parasitizing the trout Salmo trutta fario in Spain. Revista Ibérica de Parasitología, 50 (1-2): 67-71.

Fausch, K. D., White, R. J. (1981). Competition between brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) for positions in a Michigan stream. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 38: 1220-1227.

Fausch, K. D., White, R. J. (1986). Competition among juveniles of coho salmon, brook trout, and brown trout in a laboratory stream, and implications for Great Lakes tributaries. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 115: 363-381.

Fernández-Cebrián, R., Araguas, R. M., Sanz, N., García-Marín, J. L. (2014). Genetic risks of supplementing trout populations with native stocks: a simulation case study from current Pyrenean populations. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 71 (8): 1243-1255.

Fernández-Chacón, A., Genovart, M., Alvarez, D., Cano, J. M., Ojanguren, A. F., Rodríguez-Muñoz, R., Nicieza, A. G. (2015). Neighbouring populations, opposite dynamics: influence of body size and environmental variation on the demography of stream-resident brown trout (Salmo trutta). Oecologia, 178 (2): 379-389.    

Fernández-Parajes, J., Riesco-Muñoz, G. (2016). Fish Community in the Masma River Basin (Spain). Management Proposals. Tecnología y Ciencias del Agua, 7 (3): 37-52.  

Filipe, A. F., Markovic, D., Pletterbauer, F., Tisseuil, C., De Wever, A., Schmutz, S., Bonada, N., Freyhof, J. (2013). Forecasting fish distribution along stream networks: brown trout (Salmo trutta) in Europe. Diversity and Distributions, 19 (8): 1059-1071.

Fleming, I. A. (1996). Reproductive strategies of Atlantic salmon: ecology and evolution. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries, 6: 379-416.

Fregeneda-Grandes, J. M., Carbajal-González, M. T., Aller-Gancedo, J. M. (2009). Prevalence of serum antibodies against Saprolegnia parasitica in wild and farmed brown trout Salmo trutta. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 83 (1): 17-22.

Freyhof, J., Kottelat, M. (2010). Salmo trutta. En: IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>.

Gabler, H. M., Amundsen, P. A. (1999). Resource partitioning between Siberian sculpin (Cottus poecilopus Heckel) and Atlantic salmon parr (Salmo salar L.) in a sub-Arctic river, northern Norway. Ecology of Freshwater Fish, 8: 201-208.

García, A., Braña, F. (1988). Reproductive biology of brown trout (Salmo trutta L) in the Aller river (Asturias; northern Spain). Polskie Archiwum Hydrobiologii, 35: 361-373.

García de Jalón, D. (1992). Dinámica de las poblaciones piscícolas en los ríos de montaña ibéricos. Ecología, 6: 281-296.

García de Jalón, D., Barceló, E. (1987). Estudio sobre la alimentación de la trucha común en los ríos pirenaicos. Ecología, 1: 263-269.

García de Jalón, D., González del Tánago, M. (1983). Estudio biotipológico de las comunidades piscícolas de la cuenca del Duero. Bol. Est. Cent. Ecol., 12 (24): 57-66.

García de Jalón, D., Mayo, M., Hervella, F., Barceló, E., Villeta, C. (1990). Pesca Fluvial en Galicia: Bases limnológicas para su gestión. Consellería de Agricultura, Ganadería e Montes. Santiago de Compostela.

García de Jalón, D., Mayo, M., Molles, M.C. (1996). Characterization of Spanish Pyrenean Stream Habitat: Relationships between Fish Communities and their Habitat. Regulated Rivers: Research & Management, 12: 305-316.

García de Jalón, D., Montes, C., Barceló, E., Casado, C., Menes, F. (1988a). Effects of hydroelectric scheme on fluvial ecosystems within the Spanish Pyrenees. Regulated Rivers: Research & Management, 2 (4): 479-491.

García de Jalón, D., Montes, C., Barceló, E., Casado, C., Menes, F. (1988b). Impacto ecológico de la regulación hidroeléctrica en ríos del Pirineo Aragonés. Pp. 149-162. En: Iturrondobeitia, J. C. (Ed.). Biologia ambiental. Actas del Congreso de Biologia Ambiental. 2 Congreso Mundial Vasco. Tomo 2. Servicio Editorial de la Universidad del País Vasco, Bilbao.

García de Jalón, D., Serrano, J. (1985). Las poblaciones de truchas en los ríos de la cuenca del Duero. Bol. Est. Central Ecol., 28: 47-56.

García de Jalón, D., Tánago, M.G, Casado, C. (1992). Ecology of regulated streams in Spain: an overview. Limnetica, 8: 161-166.

García de Jalón, D., Tolosana Esteban, E., Rodríguez Alcalde, F. (1986). Estimación de algunos parámetros poblacionales de la trucha común (Salmo trutta fario) en los ríos Pirenaicos. Boletín de la Estación Central de Ecología, 15 (29): 51-58.

García de Leaniz, C., Verspoor, E. (1989). Natural hybridization between Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, and brown trout, Salmo trutta, in northern Spain. Journal of Fish Biology, 34 (1): 41-46.

García-Marín, J. L., Sanz, N., Pla, C. (1998). Proportions of native and introduced brown trout in adjacent fished and unfished Spanish rivers. Conservation Biology, 12 (2): 313-319.

García-Marín, J. L., Sanz, N., Pla, C. (1999). Erosion of the native genetic resources of brown trout in Spain. Ecology of Freshwater Fish, 8 (3): 151-158.

García-Vazquez, E., Morán, P., Martinez, J. L., Pérez, J., de Gaudemar, B., Beall, E. (2001). Alternative mating strategies in Atlantic salmon and brown trout. Journal of Heredity, 92: 146-149.

García-Vega, A., Sanz-Ronda, F. J., Fuentes-Pérez, J. F. (2017). Seasonal and daily upstream movements of brown trout Salmo trutta in an Iberian regulated river. Knowledge and Management of Aquatic Ecosystems, 418: 9.

Gardiner, W. R., Shackley, P. (1991). Stock and recruitment and inversely density-dependent growth of salmon, Salmo salar L. in a Scottish Stream. Journal of Fish Biology, 38: 691-696.

Gårnas, E., Hvisten, N. A. (1985). The food of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. and brown trout Salmo trutta L. smolts during migration in the Orkla river, Norway. Fauna Norv. Ser., A 6: 24-28.

Gatz, A. J. Jr, Sale, M. J., Loar, J. M. (1987). Habitat shifts in rainbow trout: competitive influences of brown trout. Oecologia, 74: 7-19.

Gaudin, P., Caillere, L. (1990). Microdistribution of Cottus gobio L. and fry of Salmo trutta L. in a first order stream. Polskie Archiwum Hydrobiologii, 37: 81-93.

Gauthey, Z., Lang, M., Elosegi, A., Tentelier, C., Rives, J., Labonne, J. (2017). Brown trout spawning habitat selection and its effects on egg survival. Ecology of Frshwater Fish, 26 (1): 133-140.

Gibson, R. J. (1993). The Atlantic salmon in fresh water: spawning, rearing and production. Rev. Fish. Biol., 3 (1): 39-73.

González-Lanza, M. C., Alvarez-Pellitero, M. P. (1984). Myxobolus farionis n. sp. and M. ibericus n. sp. of Salmo trutta f. fario from the Duero Basin (NW Spain). Description and population dynamics. Angewandte Parasitologie, 25 (4): 181-189.

Gortázar, J., Alonso, C., García de Jalón, D. (2012). Brown trout redd superimposition in relation to spawning habitat availability. Ecology of Freshwater Fish, 21 (2): 283-292.

Gortázar, J., García de Jalón, D., Alonso-González, C., Vizcaíno, P., Baeza, D., Marchamalo, M. (2007). Spawning period of a southern brown trout population in a highly unpredictable stream. Ecology of Freshwater Fish, 16: 515-527.

Gortázar, J., Parasiewicz, P., Alonso-González, C., García de Jalón, D. (2011). Physical habitat assessment in the Tajuña river (Spain) by means of the MesoHABSIM approach. Limnetica, 30 (2): 379-392.

Granado Lorencio, C. (2000). Ecología de comunidades. El paradigma de los peces de agua dulce. Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla.

Grant, J. W. A., Kramer, D. L. (1990). Territory Size as a Predictor of the Upper Limit to Population Density of Juvenile Salmonids in Streams. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 47 (9): 1724-1737.

Greenberg, L. A., Dahl, J. (1998). Effect of habitat type on growth and diet of brown trout, Salmo trutta L., in stream enclosures. Fisheries Management and Ecology, 5: 331-348.

Grey, J. (2001). Ontogeny and dietary specialization in brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) from Loch Ness, Scotland, examined using stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen. Ecology of Freshwater Fish, 10: 168-176.

Grønvik, S., Klemetsen, A. (1987). Marine food and diet overlap of co-occurring Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus (L.), brown trout Salmo trutta L. and Atlantic salmon S. salar L. off Senja, N Norway. Polar Biology, 7: 173-177.

Gross, M. R. (1985). Disruptive selection for alternative life histories in salmon. Nature, 313: 47-48.

Haldane, J. B. S. (1956). The relation between density regulation and natural selection. Proceedings of The Royal Society B, 145: 306-308.

Hallet, C. (1982). Etude du comportement de prédation du martin-pêcheur (Alcedo atthis (L.)): taille préférentielle de capture du chabot, Cottus gobio L. et de la truite, Salmo trutta L. Rev. Ecol. Terre Vie, 36: 211-222.

Haraldstad, Ø., Jonsson, B. (1983). Age and sex segregation in habitat utilization by brown trout in a Norwegian lake. Transactions of American Fisheries Society, 112: 27-37.

Haraldstad, Ø., Jonsson, B., Sandlund, O. T., Schei, T. A. (1987). Lake effect on stream living brown trout (Salmo trutta). Archievium für Hydrobiologie, 109: 39-48.

Harris, C. M., Calladine, J. R., Wernham, C. V., Park, K. J. (2008). Impacts of piscivorous birds on salmonid populations and game fisheries in Scotland: a review. Wildl. Biol., 14: 395-411.

Haury, J., Ombredane, D., Baglinière, J.L. (1999). The habitat of the brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) in water courses. En: Baglinière, J.L., Maisse, G., (Eds.). Biology and ecology of the brown trout and sea trout. Springer, Heidelberg, and Praxis Publishing Ltd., Chichester.

Healey, M. (1984). Fish predation on aquatic insects. En: Resh, V. H., Rosenberg, P. M. (Eds.). The ecology of aquatic insects. Preger, New York.

Heggenes, J. (2002). Flexible summer habitat selection by wild, allopatric brown trout in lotic environments. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 131: 287–298.

Heggenes, J., Baglinière, J.L.,  Cunjak, R.A. (1999). Spatial niche variability for young Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and brown trout (S. trutta) in heterogeneous streams. Ecology of Freshwater Fish, 8: 1-21.

Heggenes, J., Borgstrøm, R. (1988). Effect of mink, Mustela vison Schreber, predation on cohorts of juvenile Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., and brown trout, S. trutta L., in three small streams. Journal of Fish Biology, 33 (6): 885-894

Heggenes, J., Dokk, J.G. (2001). Contrasting temperatures, waterflows, and light: Seasonal habitat selection by young Atlantic salmon and brown trout in a boreonemoral river. Regulated Rivers: Research and Management, 17: 623-635.

Heggenes, J., Saltveit, S. J., Bird, D., Grew, R. (2002). Static habitat partitioning and dynamic selection by sympatric young Atlantic salmon and brown trout in south-west England streams. Journal of Fish Biology, 60: 72-86.

Heland, M. (1999). Social organisation and territoriality in brown trout juveniles during ontogeny. En: Baglinière, J. L., Maisse, G. (Eds.). Biology and Ecology of the Brown and Sea Trout. Springer, Heidelberg, and Praxis Publishing Ltd., Chichester.

Hermida, M., San Miguel, E., Bouza, C., Castro, J., Martínez, P. (2009). Morphological variation in a secondary contact between divergent lineages of brown trout (Salmo trutta) from the Iberian Peninsula. Genetics and Molecular Biology, 32 (1): 42-50.

Holmen, J., Olsen, E. M., Vøllestad, L. A. (2003). Interspecific competition between stream-dwelling brown trout and Alpine bullhead. Journal of Fish Biology, 62: 1312-1325.

Hórreo, J. L., Abad, D., Dopico, E., Oberlin, M., García-Vázquez, E. (2016). Expansion of Non-Native Brown Trout in South Europe May Be Inadvertently Driven by Stocking: Molecular and Social Survey in the North Iberian Narcea River. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 16 (7): 15546-15559.    

Hórreo, J. L., Ayllón, F., Pérez, J., Beall, E., García-Vázquez, E. (2011). Interspecific Hybridization, a Matter of Pioneering? Insights from Atlantic Salmon and Brown Trout. Journal of Heredity, 102 (2): 237-242.

Hórreo, J. L., García-Vázquez, E. (2011). Foreign brown trout in protected landscapes as a consequence of connectivity. Fisheries Management and Ecology, 18 (5): 431-436. 

Hunt, R. L. (1975). Food relations and behavior of salmonid fishes. Use of terrestrial invertebrates as food by salmonid. En: Hassler, A. D. (Ed.). Coupling of land and water system. Springer-Verlag, New York.

Huryn, A. D. (1996). An appraisal of the Allen paradox in a New Zealand trout stream. Limnol. Oceanogr., 41 (2): 243-252.

Hyatt, K. D. (1979). Feeding strategy. En: Hoar, W. S., Randall, D .J., Brett, J. R. (Eds.). Fish Physiology. Academic Press, New York.

Hynes, H. B. N. (1970). The ecology of running waters. Univ. Toronto.

Hyvarinen, P., Vehanen, T. (2004). Effect of brown trout body size on post-stocking survival and pike predation. Ecology of Freshwater Fish, 13: 77-84.

Jacobsen, L. (2005). Otter (Lutra lutra) predation on stocked brown trout (Salmo trutta) in two Danish lowland rivers. Ecology of Freshwater Fish, 14: 59-68.

Jensen, K. W. (1968). Sea trout (Salmo trutta L.) of the River Istra, western Norway. Report of the Institute of Freshwater Research, 48: 187-213.

Jones, J. W., Ball, J. N. (1954). The spawning behaviour of brown trout and salmon. British Journal of Animal Behaviour, 2: 103-114.

Jonsson, B. (1985). Life history pattern of freshwater resident and sea-run migrant brown trout in Norway. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 114: 182-194.

Jonsson, B. (1985). Life history patterns of freshwater resident and sea-run migrant brown trout in Norway. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc., 114: 182-194.

Jonsson, B. (1989). Life history and habitat use of Norwegian brown trout (Salmo trutta). Freshwat. Biol., 21: 71-86.

Jonsson, B., Gravem, F. R. (1985). Use of space and food by resident and migrant brown trout, Salmo trutta. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 14: 281-293.

Jonsson, B., L’Abée-Lund, J. H. (1993). Latitudinal clines in life-history variables of anadromous brown trout in Europe. Journal of Fish Biology, 43 (Suppl A): 1-16.

Jonsson, B., L’Abée-Lund, J. H., Heggberget, T. G., Jensen, A. J., Johnsen, B. O., Næsje, T. F., Sættem, L. M. (1991a). Longevity, body size and growth in anadromous brown trout. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 48: 1838-1845.

Jonsson, N., Hansen, L.P., Jonsson, B. (1991b). Variation in age, size and repeat spawning of adult Atlantic salmon in relation to river discharge. Journal of Animal Ecology, 60: 937-947.

Jonsson, B., Jonsson, N. (1993). Partial migration: niche shift versus sexual maturation in fishes. Rev. Fish Biol. Fish., 3: 348-365.

Jonsson, N., Jonsson, B. (1997). Energy allocation in polymorphic brown trout. Functional Ecology, 11: 310-317.

Jonsson, N., Jonsson, B. (1998). Body composition and energy allocation in life-history stages of brown trout. Journal of Fish Biology, 53: 1306-1316.

Jonsson, N., Jonsson, B. (1999). Trade-off between egg mass and egg number in brown trout. Journal of Fish Biology, 55: 767-783.

Jonsson, N., Jonsson, B. (2002). Migration of anadromous brown trout in a Norwegian river. Freshwater Biology, 47: 1-11.

Jonsson, N., Næsje, T. F., Jonsson, B., Saksgård, R., Sandlund, O. T. (1999). The influence of piscivory on life history traits of brown trout. Journal of Fish Biology, 55: 1129-1141.

Kakacheva-Avramova, D., Nedeva, I., González-Lanza, M. C., Alvares-Pellitero, M. P. (1986a). Tetraonchus gussevi sp. n. (Monogenea). Khelmintologiya, 21: 9-12.

Kakacheva-Avramova, D., Nedeva, I., González-Lanza, M. C., Alvares-Pellitero, M. P. (1986b). A description of Tetraonchus gussevi sp. n. (Monogenea) from trout (Salmo trutta m. fario). Helminthologia, 23 (4): 243-247.

Kalleberg, H. (1958). Observations in a stream tank of territoriality and competition in juvenile salmon and trout (Salmo salar L. & S. trutta L.). Report of Institute of Freshwater Research, 39: 55-98.

Kawaguchi, Y., Nakano, S. (2001). Contribution of terrestrial invertebrates to the annual resource budget for salmonids in forest and grassland reaches of a headwater stream. Freshwat. Biol., 46: 303-316.

Keeley, E. R., Grant, J. W. A. (2001). Prey size of salmonid fishes in streams, lakes and oceans. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 58: 1122-1132.

Kennedy, G. J. A., Greer, J. E. (1988). Predation by cormorants, Phalacrocorax carbo (L.), on the salmonid populations of an Irish river. Aquaculture and Fisheries Management, 19:159-170.

Keränen, M., Ellonen, T., Lind, E. A. (1974). Characteristics and population structure of the brown trout, Salmo trutta L., in the Oulankajou river at Kintaköngäs. Ichthyologia Fennica Borealis, 1: 1-66.

Klemetsen, A. (1967). On the feeding habits of the population of brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) in Jølstervann, west Norway. Nytt Magasin for Zoologi, 15: 50-67.

Klemetsen, A., Amundsen, P. A., Dempson, J. B., Jonsson, B., Jonsson, N., O’Connell, M. F., Mortensen, E. (2003). Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L., brown trout Salmo trutta L. and Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus (L.): a review of aspects of their life histories. Ecology of Freshwater Fish, 12: 1-59.

Knutsen, J. A., Knutsen, H., Gjøsæter, J., Jonsson, B. (2001). Food of anadromous brown trout at sea. Journal of Fish Biology, 59: 533-543.

Koed, A., Baktoft, H., Bak, B. D. (2006). Causes of mortality of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) and Brown Trout (Salmo trutta) smolts in a restored river and its estuary. River Res. Appl., 22: 69-78.

Kottelat, M., Freyhof, J. (2007). Handbook of European Freshwater Fishes. Kottelat, Cornol, Switzerland and Freyhof, Berlin, Germany. Publications Kottelat.

Krueger, C. C., Perkins, D. L., Mills, E. L., Marsden, J. E. (1995). Predation by alewives on lake trout fry in Lake Ontario: Role of an exotic species in preventing restoration of a native species. J. Great Lakes Res., 21 (Suppl. 1): 458-469

L’Abée-Lund, J. H., Langeland, A., Sægrov, H. (1992). Piscivory by brown trout Salmo trutta L. and Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus (L.) in Norwegian lakes. Journal of Fish Biology, 41: 91-101.

Lahti, K., Laurila, A., Enberg, K., Piironen, J. 2001. Variation in agressive behaviour and growth rate between populations and migratory forms in the brown trout, Salmo trutta. Animal Behaviour, 62: 935-944.

Langeland, A., L’Abée-Lund, J.H., Jonsson, B., Jonsson, N. (1991). Resource partitioning and niche shift in Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus and brown trout Salmo trutta. Journal of Animal Ecology, 60: 895-912.

Lapesa, S., Gines, E., González, J. M. (2016). Brown trout (Salmo trutta, Linnaeus, 1758) spawning habitat improvement in the Ebro River Basin (eastern Spain). Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 32 (1): 171-179.

Largiander, C. R., Estoup, A., Lecerf, F., Champigneulle, A., Guyomard, R. (2001). Microsatellite analysis of polyandry and spawning site competition in brown trout (Salmo trutta L.). Genetics Selection Evolution, 33 (Suppl 1): 205-222.

Larios-López, J. E., Tierno De Figueroa, J. M., Galiana-García, M., Gortázar, J., Alonso, C. (2015). Extended spawning in brown trout (Salmo trutta) populations from the Southern Iberian Peninsula: the role of climate variability. Journal of Limnology, 74 (2): 394-402.   

Le Cren, E. D. (1973). The population dynamics of young trout (Salmo trutta) in relation to density and territorial behaviour. Rapp. P.-V. Reun. Cons. Int. Explor. Mer, 164: 241-246.

Legorburu, I., Cantón, L., Millán, E., Casado, A. (1988). Trace metal levels in fish from Urola River (Spain) Anguillidae, Mugillidae and Salmonidae. Environmental Technology Letters, 9 (12): 1373-1378.

Liebig, H., Cereghino, R., Lim, P., Belaud, A., Lek, S. (1999). Impact of hydropeaking on the abundance of juvenile brown trout in a Pyrenean stream. Archiv für Hydrobiologie, 144 (4): 439-454.

Linde, A. R., Arribas, P., Sánchez-Galán, S., García-Vázquez, E. (1996). Eel (Anguilla anguilla) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) target species to assess the biological impact of trace metal pollution in freshwater ecosystems. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 31 (3): 297-302.

Linde, A. R., Sánchez-Galán, S., Klein, D., García-Vázquez, E., Summer, K. H. (1999). Metallothionein and heavy metals in brown trout (Salmo trutta) and European eel (Anguilla anguilla): a comparative study. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 44 (2): 168-173.

Lobón-Cerviá, J. (2000). Determinants of parr size variations within a population of brown trout Salmo trutta L. Ecology of Freshwater Fish, 9 (1-2): 92-102.

Lobón-Cerviá, J. (2003). Spatiotemporal dynamics of brown trout production in a Cantabrian stream: effects of density and habitat quality. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 132: 621-637.

Lobón-Cerviá, J. (2004). Discharge-dependent covariation patterns in the population dynamics of brown trout (Salmo trutta) within a Cantabrian river drainage. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 61: 1929-1939.

Lobón-Cerviá, J. (2009a). Recruitment as a driver of production dynamics in stream-resident brown trout (Salmo trutta). Freshwater Biology, 54: 1692-1704.

Lobón-Cerviá, J. (2009b). Why, when and how do fish populations decline, collapse and recover? The example of brown trout (Salmo trutta) in Rio Chaballos (northwestern Spain). Freshwater Biology, 54: 1149-1162.

Lobón-Cerviá, J. (2010). Density dependence constrains mean growth rate while enhancing individual size variation in stream salmonids. Oecologia, 164 (1): 109-115.

Lobón-Cerviá, J. (2012). Density-dependent mortality in adults, but not juveniles, of stream-resident brown trout (Salmo trutta). Freshwater Biology, 57 (10): 2181-2189.

Lobón-Cerviá, J. (2014). Recruitment and survival rate variability in fish populations: density-dependent regulation or further evidence of environmental determinants? Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science, 71 (2): 290-300.

Lobón-Cerviá, J., González, G., Budy, P. (2011). Factors driving spatial and temporal variation in production and production/biomass ratio of stream-resident brown trout (Salmo trutta) in Cantabrian streams. Freshwater Biology, 56 (11): 2272-2287.

Lobón-Cerviá, J., Penczak, T. (1984). Fish production in the Jarama River, central Spain. Holarctic Ecology, 7 (2): 128-137.

Lobón-Cerviá, J., de Sostoa, A., Montañés, C. (1986). Fish production and its relation with the community structure in an aquifer-fed stream of Old Castile (Spain). Polskie Archiwum Hydrobiologii, 33: 333-343.

Lobón-Cerviá, J., Montañés, C., de Sostoa, A. (1986). Reproductive ecology and growth of a population of brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) in an aquifer-fed stream of Old Castile. Hydrobiologia, 135 (1-2): 81-94.

Lobón-Cerviá, J., Rincón, P. A. (1998). Field assessment of the influence of temperature on growth rate in a brown trout population. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 127 (5): 718-728.

Lobón-Cerviá, J., Utrilla, C. G., Rincón, P. A., Amezcua, F. (1997). Environmentally induced spatio-temporal variations in the fecundity of brown trout Salmo trutta L.: trade-offs between egg size and number. Freshwater Biology, 38 (2): 277-288.

López Álvarez, J. V. (1984). Observaciones sobre la alimentación natural de la trucha común (Salmo trutta fario L.) en algunos ríos de la cuenca del Duero. Limnetica, 1: 247-255.

Lozano Rey, L. (1935). Los peces fluviales de España. Academia de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales. Madrid.

Lyse, A. A., Stefanson, S. O., Fernø, A. (1998). Behaviour and diet of sea trout post-smolts in a Norwegian fjord system. Journal of Fish Biology, 52: 923-936.

Lyse, A. A., Stefanson, S. O., Fernø, A. (1998). Behaviour and diet of sea trout post-smolts in a Norwegian fjord system. Journal of Fish Biology, 52: 923-936.

Maceda-Veiga, A., Green, A. J., De Sostoa, A. (2014). Scaled body-mass index shows how habitat quality influences the condition of four fish taxa in north-eastern Spain and provides a novel indicator of ecosystem health. Freshwater Biology, 59 (6): 1145-1160.

Machordom, A., García-Marín, J. L., Sanz, N., Almodovar, A., Pla, C. (1999). Allozyme diversity in brown trout (Salmo trutta) from central Spain: genetic consequences of restocking. Freshwater Biology, 41 (4): 707-717.

Machordom, A., Suarez, J., Almodovar, A., Bautista, J. M. (2000). Mitochondrial haplotype variation and phylogeography of Iberian brown trout populations. Molecular Ecology, 9 (9): 1325-1338.

Marco-Rius, F., Caballero, P., Morán, P., García de Leániz, C. (2012). And the Last Shall Be First: Heterochrony and Compensatory Marine Growth in Sea Trout (Salmo trutta). Plos One, 7 (10): e45528.

Marco-Rius, F., Sotelo, G., Caballero, P., Morán, P. (2013). Insights for planning an effective stocking program in anadromous brown trout (Salmo trutta). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 70 (7): 1092-1100.   

Marschall, E. A., Crowder, L. B. (1995). Density-dependent survival as a function of size in juvenile salmonids in streams. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 52: 136-140.

Marsden, J. E. (1997). Carp diet includes zebra mussels and lake trout eggs. J. Freshwater Ecol., 12: 491-492.

Martínez, P., Arias, J., Castro, J., Sánchez, L. (1993). Differential stocking incidence in brown trout (Salmo trutta) populations from northwestern Spain. Aquaculture, 114 (3-4): 203-216.

Martínez, P., Bouza, C., Castro, J., Hermida, M., Pardo, B. G., Sanchez, L. (2007). Analysis of a secondary contact between divergent lineages of brown trout Salmo trutta L. from Duero basin using microsatellites and mtDNA RFLPs. Journal of Fish Biology, 71 (Suppl B): 195-213.

Mason, J. C., Machidori, S. (1976). Populations of sympatric sculpins, Cottus aleuticus and Cottus asper, in four adjacent salmon-producing coastal streams on Vancouver Island, B. C. Fishery Bulletin, 74: 131-141.

Mayo Rustarazo, M., Gallego Ballestero, B., García de Jalón Lastra, D., Brotons Floria, P. A. (1995). Preferencias de hábitat de la trucha común en la época de freza, Río Dulce, Guadalajara. Limnetica, 11 (1): 49-54.

Milner, N. J., Elliott, J. M., Armstrong, J. D., Gardiner, R., Welton, J. S., Ladle, M. (2003). The natural control of salmon and trout populations in streams. Fisheries Research, 62: 111-125.

Milner, N. J., Gee, A. S., Hemsworth, R. J. (1979). Recruitment and turnover of populations of brown trout, Salmo trutta, in the upper River Wye, Wales. J. Fish Biol., 15: 211-222.

Monaghan, K. A., Machado, A. L., Wrona, F. J., Soares, A. M. V. M. (2016). The impact of wildfire on stream fishes in an Atlantic-Mediterranean climate: evidence from an 18-year chronosequence. Knowledge and Management of Aquatic Ecosystems, 417: 1-11.

Montañés, C., Lobón-Cerviá, J. (1986). Feeding ecology of a population of brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) in an aquifer-fed stream of Old Castile, Spain. Ekologia Polska, 34 (2): 203-213.

Montori, A., Terno de Figueroa, J. M., Santos, X. (2006). The diet of the Brown trout Salmo trutta (L.) during the reproductive period: size-related and sexual effects. Internat. Rev. Hydrobiol., 91: 438-450.

Mortensen, E. (1977). Population, survival, growth and production of trout Salmo trutta in a small Danish stream. Oikos, 28: 9-15.

Mortensen, E. (1978). The population dynamics and production of trout (Salmo trutta L.) in a small Danish stream. Pp. 151-160. En: Moring, J. R. (Ed.). Proceedings of the wild trout – catchable trout symposium. Eugene, Oregon.

Mortensen, E. (1985). Population and energy dynamics of trout Salmo trutta in a small Danish stream. Journal of Animal Ecology, 54: 869-882.

Museth, J., Borgstrøm, Brittain, J. E. (2010). Diet overlap between introduced European minnow (Phoxinus phoxinus) and young brown trout (Salmo trutta) in the lake, Øvre Heimdalsvatn: a result of abundant resources or forced niche overlap? Hydrobiologia, 642: 93-100.

Næsje, T. F., Jonsson, B. (1988). Impacted stress: a causal agent of reduced whitefish egg incubation time. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 45: 27-31.

Næsje, T. F., Sandlund, O. T., Saksgård, R. (1998). Selective predation by brown trout (Salmo trutta) on polymorphic whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus L.). Special Issues of Advances in Limnology, 50: 283-294.

Nelly-Quinn, M., Bracken, J. J. (1990). A seasonal analysis of the diet and feeding dynamics of brown trout, Salmo trutta L., in a small nursery stream. Aquaculture and Fisheries Management, 21: 107-124.

Neveu, A. (1980). Les rythmes alimentaires en milieu naturel. En: Fontaine, M. (Ed.). Nutrition des poisons. Coll. Cnerma, Paris.

Neveu, A. (1999). Feeding strategy of the brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) in running water. En: Baglinière, J. L., Maisse, G. (Eds.). Biology and Ecology of the brown trout and sea trout. Springer-Praxis Series in Aquaculture and Fisheries, Berlin.

Nicola, G. G., Almodóvar, A. (2002). Reproductive traits of stream-dwelling brown trout Salmo trutta in contrasting neighbouring rivers of central Spain. Freshwater Biology, 47 (8): 1353-1365.

Nicola, G. G., Almodóvar, A., Elvira, B. (2009). Influence of hydrologic attributes on brown trout recruitment in low-latitude range margins. Oecologia, 160: 515-524.

Nicola, G. G., Almodóvar, A., Jonsson, B., Elvira, B. (2008). Recruitment variability of resident brown trout in peripheral populations from southern Europe. Freshw. Biol., 53: 2364-2374.

Nikolskii, G. V. (1963). The ecology of fishes. Academic Press, London.

Nislow, K. H., Folt, C. L., Parrish, D. L. (1998). Food and foraging behavior in relation to microhabitat use and survival of age-0 Atlantic salmon. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 5: 116-127.

Northcote, T. G. (1992). Migration and residency in stream salmonids—some ecological considerations and evolutionary consequences. Nord. J. Freshwat. Res., 67: 5-17.

Ojanguren A. F., Braña, F. (2003). Effects of size and morphology on swimming performance in juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta L.). Ecology of Freshwater Fish, 12: 241-246.

Ojanguren, A. F. Braña, F. (2003b). Thermal dependence of embryonic growth and development in brown trout. Journal of Fish Biology, 62: 580-590.

Olsen, E. M., Vøllestad, L. A. (2003). Microgeographical variation in brown trout reproductive traits: possible effects of biotic interactions. Oikos, 100: 483-492.

Ormerod, S. J., Tyler, Stephanie, J., Lewis, J. M. S. (1985). 'Is the breeding distribution of Dippers influenced by stream acidity?'. Bird Study, 32 (1): 32-39.

Oscoz, J., Escala, M. C., Campos, F. (2000). La alimentación de la trucha común (Salmo trutta L., 1758) en un río de Navarra (N. España). Limnetica, 18: 29-35.

Oscoz, J., Leunda, P. M., Campos, F., Escala, M. C., Miranda, R. (2005). Diet of 0+ Brown trout (Salmo trutta L., 1758) from the river Erro (Navarra, North of Spain). Limnetica, 24: 319-326.

Oscoz, J., Leunda, P. M., Campos, F., Escala, M. C., Miranda, R. (2008). Summer feeding relationships of the co-occurring hatchling brown trout Salmo trutta and Ebro minnows Phoxinus bigerri in an Iberian river. Acta Zoologica Sinica, 54 (4): 675-685.

Pakkasmaa, S., Piironen, J. (2001). Morphological differentiation among local trout (Salmo trutta) populations. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 72: 231-239.

Palazón, S.., Ruiz-Olmo, J., Gosálbez, J. (2004). The diet of the European mink (Mustela lutreola L., 1761) in Spain. Mammalia, 68 (2-3): 159-165.

Parra, I., Almodóvar, A., Ayllón, D., Nicola, G. G., Elvira, B. (2011). Ontogenetic variation in density-dependent growth of brown trout through habitat competition. Freshwater Biology, 56 (3): 530-540.

Parra, I., Almodóvar, A., Ayllón, D., Nicola, G. G., Elvira, B. (2012). Unravelling the effects of water temperature and density dependence on the spatial variation of brown trout (Salmo trutta) body size. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science, 69 (5): 821-832.

Parra, I., Almodovar, A., Nicola, G. G., Elvira, B. (2009). Latitudinal and altitudinal growth patterns of brown trout Salmo trutta at different spatial scales. Journal of Fish Biology, 74 (10): 2355-2373.

Parra, I., Nicola, G. G., Vollestad, L. A., Elvira, B., Almodovar, A. (2014). Latitude and altitude differentially shape life history trajectories between the sexes in non-anadromous brown trout. Evolutionary Ecology, 28 (4): 707-720.

Pedley, R. B., Jones, J. W. (1978). The comparative feeding behavior of brown trout, Salmo trutta L. and Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. in Llyn Dwythwch, Wales. J. Fish Biol., 12: 239-256.

Pemberton, R. (1976). Sea trout in North Agryll sea lochs. Part 2. Diet. Journal of Fish Biology, 9: 195-208.

Rassmusen, G. (1986). The population dynamics of brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) in relation to year-class size. Polskie Archiwum Hydrobiologii, 33: 489-508.

Regnier, T., Bolliet, V., Gaudin, P., Labonne, J. (2013). Bigger is not always better: egg size influences survival throughout incubation in brown trout (Salmo trutta). Ecology of Freshwater Fish, 22 (2): 169-177.

Ricker, W.E. (1954). Stock and Recruitment. J. Fish. Res. Bd. Can., 11: 559-623.

Rincón, P. A., Lobón-Cerviá, J. (1993). Microhabitat use by stream-resident brown trout: bioenergetics consequences. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 122: 575-587.

Rincón, P. A., Lobón-Cerviá, J. (1999). Prey-size selection by brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) in a stream in northern Spain. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 77: 755-765.

Rincón, P. A., Lobón-Cerviá, J. (2002). Nonlinear self-thinning in a stream-resident population of brown trout (Salmo trutta). Ecology, 83 (7): 1808-1816.

Roussel, J. M., Bardonnet, A. (1999). Ontogeny of diel pattern of stream-margin habitat use by emerging brown trout, Salmo trutta, in experimental channels: influence of food and predator presence. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 56: 253-262.

Rubin, J. F., Svensson, M. (1993). Predation by the noble crayfish, Astacus astacus (L.), on emerging fry of sea trout, Salmo trutta (L.). Nordic Journal of Freshwater Research, 68: 100-104.

Rustadbakken, A., L’Abe´e-Lund, J. H., Arnekleiv, J. V., Kraabol, M. (2004). Reproductive migration of brown trout in a small Norwegian river studied by telemetry. Journal of Fish Biology, 64: 2-15.

Sánchez, J. (2009). Biología de la alimentación de la trucha común (Salmo trutta Linné, 1758) en los ríos de Galicia. Tesis doctoral. Universidade de Santiago de Compostela. Santiago de Compostela.

Sánchez, J., Cobo, F., González, M. A. (2007). Biología y la alimentación del salvelino, Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchill, 1814), en cinco lagunas glaciares de la Sierra de Gredos (Ávila, España). Nova Acta Científica Compostelana, 16: 129-144.

Sánchez-Hernández, J. (2011). Infestation of Lernaea cyprinacea (Crustacea: Copepoda) on wild brown trout (Salmo trutta) in Spain. Bulletin of the European Association of Fish Pathologists, 31 (3): 119-123.  

Sánchez-Hernández, J., Cobo, F. (2011). Summer food resource partitioning between four sympatric fish species in Central Spain (River Tormes). Folia Zoologica, 60 (3): 189-202.

Sánchez-Hernández, J., Cobo, F. (2013). Ontogenetic dietary shifts in the summer feeding intensity of brown trout in relation to fish condition. Folia Zoologica, 62 (2): 110-114.

Sánchez-Hernández, J., Cobo, F. (2013b). Foraging behaviour of brown trout in wild populations: can population density cause behaviourally-mediated foraging specializations? Animal Biology, 63 (4): 425-450.

Sánchez-Hernández, J., Cobo, F. (2015). Adaptive flexibility in the feeding behaviour of brown trout: optimal prey size. Zoological Studies, 54: 26.

Sánchez-Hernández, J., Cobo, F. (2016). Ontogenetic shifts in terrestrial reliance of stream-dwelling brown trout. Journal of Limnology, 75 (2): 1-6.

Sánchez-Hernández, J., Cobo, F., Amundsen, P. A. (2015). A simple approach for assigning the conservation status of freshwater fish based on their natural variability - a case study from the Iberian Ecoregion. Fisheries Management and Ecology, 22 (2): 125-133. 

Sánchez-Hernández, J., Nunn, A. D. (2016). Environmental changes in a Mediterranean river: implications for the fish assemblage. Ecohydrology, 9 (8): 1439-1451.

Sánchez-Hernández, J., Serviá, M. J., Vieira-Lanero, R., Cobo, F. (2010). Evaluación del lavado gástrico como herramienta para el análisis de la dieta en trucha común. Limnetica, 29 (2): 369-378. 

Sánchez-Hernández, J., Shaw, S., Cobo, F., Allen, M. S. (2016). Influence of a Minimum-Length Limit Regulation on Wild Brown Trout: an Example of Recruitment and Growth Overfishing. North American Journal of Fisheries Management, 36 (5): 1024-1035.

Sánchez-Hernández, J., Vieira-Lanero, R., Serviá, M. J., Cobo, F. (2011). First feeding diet of young brown trout fry in a temperate area: disentangling constraints and food selection. Hydrobiologia, 663 (1): 109-119.  

Santamarina, J. (1993). Feeding ecology of a vertebrate assemblage inhabiting a stream of NW Spain (Riobo; Ulla basin). Hydrobiologia, 252 (2): 175-191.

Santiago, J. M., García de Jalón, D., Alonso, C., Solana, J., Ribalaygua, J., Pórtoles, J., Monjo, R. (2016). Brown trout thermal niche and climate change: expected changes in the distribution of cold-water fish in central Spain. Ecohydrology, 8 (3): 514-528.

Santiago, J. M., Muñoz-Mas, R., Solana-Gutiárrez, J., García de Jalón, D., Alonso, C., Martínez-Capel, F., Pórtoles, J., Monjo, R., Ribalaygua, J. (2017). Waning habitats due to climate change: the effects of changes in streamflow and temperature at the rear edge of the distribution of a cold-water fish. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 21 (8): 4073-4101.

Santos, X. (2004). Culebra viperina - Natrix maura. En: Enciclopedia Virtual de los Vertebrados Españoles. Carrascal, L. M., Salvador, A. (Eds.). Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Madrid. http://www.vertebradosibericos.org/

Sanz, N., Fernández-Cebrián, R., Casals, F., Araguas, R. M., García-Marin, J. L. (2011). Dispersal and demography of brown trout, Salmo trutta, inferred from population and family structure in unstable Mediterranean streams. Hydrobiologia, 671 (1): 105-119.  

Sanz, N., García-Marín, J. L., Pla, C. (2000). Divergence of brown trout (Salmo trutta) within glacial refugia. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 57 (11): 2201-2210.

Savino, S. F., Miller, J. E. (1991). Crayfish (Orconectes virilis) feeding on young lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush): effects of rock size. Journal of Freshwater Ecology, 6: 161-169.

Schei, T. A., Jonsson, B. (1989). Habitat use of lake-feeding, allopatric brown trout in Lake Oppheimsvatnet, Norway. Pp. 156-168. En: Brannon, E., Jonsson, B. (Eds.). Proceedings of the salmonid migration and distribution symposium. University of Washington, Seattle.

Scott, D., Irvine, J. R. (2000). Competitive exclusion of brown trout Salmo trutta L., by rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum, in lake tributaries, New Zealand. Fisheries Management and Ecology, 7: 225-237.

Sneider, B. (2000). Spawning microhabitat selection by brown trout in the Linthkanal, a mid-sized river. Journal of Freshwater Ecology, 15: 181-187.

Solomon, D. J. (1985). Salmon stocking and recruitment and stock enhancement. Journal of Fish Biology, 27 (A): 45-57.

Sømme, I. D. (1941). Ørretboka. Dybwads forlag, Oslo.

Sostoa, A., Lobón-Cerviá, J. (1989). Observations on feeding relationships between fish predators and fish assemblages in a Mediterranean stream. Regulated Rivers: Restauration and Management, 4: 157-163.

Steingrimsson, S. O., Gislason, G. M. (2002). Body size, diet and growth of landlocked brown trout, Salmo trutta, in the subarctic River Laxa, north-east Iceland. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 63: 417-426.

Stewart, D. C., Middlemas, S. J., Gardiner, W. R., Mackay, S., Armstrong, J. D. (2005). Diet and prey selection of cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo) at Loch Leven, a major stocked trout fishery. Journal of Zoology, 267: 191-201.

Suárez, J. L., Reiriz, L., Anadón, R. (1988). Feeding relationships between two salmonid species and the benthic community. Pol. Arch. Hydrobiol., 35: 341-351.

Teixeira, A., Cortes, R. M. V. (2006). Diet of stocked and wild trout, Salmo trutta: Is there competition for resources? Folia Zool., 55 (1): 61-73.

Terán, M. T., Sierra, M. (1987). Organochlorine insecticides in trout, Salmo trutta fario L., taken from four rivers in Leon, Spain. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 38 (2): 247-253.

Thomas, J. D. (1967). The food and growth of brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) and its feeding relationships with the salmon parr (Salmo salar L.) and the eel (Anguilla anguilla (L.)) in the river Teify, West Wales. Journal of Animal Ecology, 31 (2): 175-205.

Thorpe, J. E. (1974). The movement of brown trout, Salmo trutta (L) in Loch Leven, Kinross, Scotland. Journal of Fish Biology, 6: 153-180.

Thorpe, J. E. (1988). Salmon migration. Science Progress, 72: 345-370.

Toledo, M. M., Lemaire, A. L., Bagliniere, J. L., Braña, F. (1993). Caracteristiques biologiques de la truite de mer (Salmo trutta L.) au nord de l'Espagne, dans deux rivieres des Asturies. Bulletin Francais de la Peche et de la Pisciculture, 330: 295-306.

Toledo, M. M., Lemaire, A. L., Bagliniere, J. L., Braña, F. (1993). Caracteristiques biologiques de la truite de mer (Salmo trutta L.) au nord de l'Espagne, dans deux rivieres des Asturies. Bulletin Francais de la Peche et de la Pisciculture, 330: 295-306.

Vandeputte, M., Quillet, E., Chevassus, B. (2002). Early development and survival in brown trout (Salmo trutta fario L.): Indirect effects of selection for growth rate and estimation of genetic parameters. Aquaculture, 204 (3-4): 435-445.

Vera, M., García-Marín, J. L., Martínez, P., Araguas, R. M., Bouza, C. (2013). Identification and conservation of remnant genetic resources of brown trout in relict populations from Western Mediterranean streams. Hydrobiologia, 707 (1): 29-45.

Vera, M., García-Marín, J. L., Martínez, P., Bouza, C. (2015). Phylogenetic diversity within the endemic brown trout Duero lineage: implications for conservation and Management. Marine and Freshwater Research, 66 (11): 1066-1071.

Vilas, R., Bouza, C., Castro, J., López, A., Martínez, P. (2010). Management units of brown trout from Galicia (NW: Spain) based on spatial genetic structure analysis. Conservation Genetics, 11 (3): 897-906.  

Wankowski, J. W. (1979). Morphological limitations, prey size selectivity, and growth response of juvenile Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar. J. Fish Biol., 14: 89-100.

Waters, T. F. (1988). Fish production-benthos production relationships in trout streams. Pol. Arch. Hydrobiol., 35: 545-561.

Watson, R. (1999). Salmon, Trout & Char Of The World, A fisherman's Natural History. Swan Hill Press, Shrewsbury.

Went, A. E. J. (1962). Irish sea trout, a review of investigations to date. Scientific Progresses of the Royal Society of Dublin, 1: 265-296.

 

 

Carlos Alonso González1, Javier Gortázar Rubial2, Diego García de Jalón1
1
Laboratorio de Zoología, ETS Ingenieros de Montes, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid
Avda. Ramiro de Maeztu, SN. 28040 Madrid
2Ecohidráulica, SL. Rodríguez San Pedro, 13. 28015 Madrid

Fecha de publicación: 3-11-2010

Revisiones: 4-04-2012; 16-10-2017

Alonso, C., Gortázar, J., García de Jalón, D. (2017). Trucha Común – Salmo trutta. En: Enciclopedia Virtual de los Vertebrados Españoles. Sanz, J. J., García-Berthou, E. (Eds.). Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Madrid. http://www.vertebradosibericos.org/